Since the signing of the first transnational company agreement (TCA) in 1988 between BSN (now Danone) and the IUF (International Union of Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers’ Associations), the Institut de recherches économiques et sociales (IRES, institute of social and economic research) has recorded more than 384 agreements, including 218 international framework agreements (IFAs) and 166 European framework agreements (EFAs). This inventory of signed agreements, spanning the period between 1988 and 2020, demonstrates just how active French and German multinational enterprises (MNEs) have been in this area as together they have signed more than half of the TCAs. It also highlights that since 2008 the number of IFAs has been ‘plateauing’ and the number of EFAs has been waning since 2008. This situation can be explained by the difficulty of extending these types of agreements to new companies.
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